Science

What to do if you pet ingests cannabis....

Step 1. Determine the type and potency.

Here's a quick rundown of the types of cannabis your pet could have gotten into, ranked fromleast severe to most severe:

  • Raw cannabis flower - least severe because it's not decarboxylated, so the THC hasn't been activated
  • Vaped or burned cannabis flower - not ideal because there could still be some activated THC in it
  • Non-chocolate infused edibles - can vary in danger levels depending on the edible's potency and ingredients
  • Cannabutter - can vary in danger levels depending on the potency of the cannabutter
  • Concentrates - inherently potent; therefore, even the smallest amount of concentrate(e.g., a dab) can have an acute effect on an animal, particularly smaller pets
  • Chocolate-infused edibles - can vary in danger levels depending on the edible's potency, but certain properties in chocolate can be toxic to animals such as dogs and cats

Step 2. Evaluate your animal's symptoms.

Check for the following symptoms your pet is exhibiting:

  • Mild toxicity will result in sluggishness, lethargy, excessive saliva production, and wobbling.
  • More extreme cases may result in loss of bodily control, urinary incontinence, low blood pressure, a slow heart rate, seizures, or even death (via asphyxiation on their own vomit)

Step 3. Soak up the bad stuff.

You can try avoiding a worst-case scenario for your precious furbaby by soaking up your pet's stomach contents. Activated charcoal is available at most drug stores and can soak up the toxins in your pet’s stomach, including any remaining THC that hasn’t been absorbed into their bloodstream yet.

Note: Do not attempt to use activated charcoal if you’ve already tried to induce vomiting.

Step 4. Induce Vomiting.

If step 3 didn't work, try to make your pet puke. You can use hydrogen peroxide to induce vomiting -- use one teaspoon per 10 pounds on your pet, every 15 minutes (no more than three times total).

Monitor your pet closely, as this method can result in excessive vomiting or bloody stool. Don’t overdo it and watch for signs of distress, in which case you may need to seek a professional.

Note: You will feel awful and heartless and your pet will not understand why this is happening. Sorry, that’s just how it goes.

Step 5. Seek Professional Help.

If all else fails, and especially if you realize that your pet has consumed a large amount of cannabis or THC, this may be a necessary, and even life-saving next step. Be honest with your veterinarian – he or she will be able to determine the outcome either way, so transparency will save you both time in the long run.

Give the vet as much information as possible – what kind of product, its potency, how long it has been since it was ingested, etc. For example, if the edible contained chocolate, this could put your pet at further risk, so try to be specific with details.

Read the full article from Leafly HERE.

Test Results anyone? THC, THCA, Formula...

States that have legalized in cannabis require testing for potency and contaminants in cannabis, and lab-testing cannabis is quickly becoming an important part of the industry. The tests for pesticides, mold, contamination, etc. don’t require any new or special analytical techniques and are part of standard practice for other agricultural products as well. With the right lab equipment, chemists can measure cannabinoids to a certain degree of precision if they do it right, but the lack of a standardized way of looking at the data has everyone confused.

The subject of this issue is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which occurs naturally in the plant. THCA needs to be heated so it changes into THC, the active form that gets you high. All cannabinoids occur naturally in their acid forms, that’s just how their enzymes make them. The difference between THCA and THC is a carboxy group. Upon smoking, cooking or vaping heat gets rid of the carboxy so THCA gives of CO2, loosing about 12% of its weight in the process. Why does this matter for lab testing? Because THCA is heavier than THC, and lab results are given in percent mass.

The root of the confusion is the fact that different lab techniques give inherently different potency values. Depending on the lab, the analysis machine might use one of two separation methods: gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC).

GC happens at high temperatures, enough to completely decarboxylate all the cannabinoids in the mixture. The oven it happens in decarboxylates THCA before passing on to the detector, so it only picks up THC. This makes GC almost useless for testing edibles, because you need to be able to tell the difference between orally inactive THCA and active THC. Furthermore, decarboxylation happens incompletely at those high temperatures in the injector port, conserving no more than 70% of THCA, according to one study.

Liquid chromatography happens at room temperature and does not decarboxylate any cannabinoids, giving separate values for THCA and THC, which are always both present. These results need to be interpreted correctly, and hold hidden information about how the sample was handled and temperatures it has been exposed to.

Let’s look at an example. Given one lab result you could get three THC potency readings depending on how you read it, but only one method really stands to reason. Consider a made up lab result of Hypothetical OG that used LC, say it has 22.32% percent mass of THCA and 2.41% percent mass THC (active THC).

If you just look at the THCA value, you might think it has 22.32% THC. If you add the THC value to that, you might think this strain has 24.74% THC. Neither of these values is correct.

To get a real potency value you need to consider both THCA and THC, but with a correction factor for THCA before you add in THC. To calculate THCTOTAL:

 

THCtotal = (%THCA) x 0.877 + (%THC)

 

0.877 is the molecular mass (mm) of THC divided by that of THCA; this factor boils it down to a simple formula: take 87.7% of the value for THCA, then add on the value for THC. This formula also holds true for finding the active CBD content (CBD TOTAL) because CBD and THC have the exact same mm. Therefore the correct value of THC TOTAL for Hypothetical OG is 21.98%, the weighted average of THCA and THC.

To get a real measure of the potency of a strain of pot, you need to look at THC TOTAL. This is because the relative amounts of THCA and THC depend on the amount of heat the flower, dry bud or extract has been exposed to. Since this is always different, lab testing needs to see past this variable.

Since GC doesn’t work for edibles, many labs are switching to LC to test for edibles. If you know you’re looking at a lab test that used LC, you’ll need to use this formula to get a consistent value of THC TOTAL.

When looking at lab results, make sure to take this into consideration. Be suspicious of lab results that just give you one number for %THC. If the lab used GC, you won’t have this issue at all. The %THC given from a GC machine roughly reflects THC TOTAL.

Read the original article from High Times HERE.

Terpenes- Essential Oils and Cannabis

We are reposting this article, originally written by Drake Dorm for MedicalJane, because we think you might want to know how terpenes can affect your cannabis experience.

Terpenes Influence the Synergy Effect of Cannabis

As we know, science has identified and characterized the molecular structure of around 20,000 terpenes, which makes it the largest category of plant chemicals. These aromatic compounds are found in the essential oils of plants and flowers, and plenty of studies have been done on their effects.

Of the 20,000 identified terpenes, there have been more than 120 found in cannabis. Only a few of them appear in high concentrations, but they have been found to have a number of benefits. A few of these effects are covered in our terpenoid article, but recent research has suggested an “entourage effect” as well. In his 2011 study “Taming THC,”Ethan Russo, from GW Pharmaceuticals, discussed the interaction between terpenes and cannabinoids.

Terpenes May Reduce THC-Induced Anxiety

For years, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was the only cannabinoid investigated for its medicinal value, and we know it has the potential to cause anxiety in some patients. However, certain terpenes in cannabis, like Linalool, have been found to counter the anxiety.

In fact, Russo points out that terpenes likely played a role in a number of ancient antidotes for the less desirable effects of THC. For instance, citrus fruits (high in limonene) were used as a “cannabis antidote” in 10th century Persia. Other ancient antidotes include calamus plant roots and pine nuts (high in pinene), as well as black pepper (high in caryophyllene and myrcene).

Terpenes and Cannabinoids Work Better Together

Terpenoids can be used for more than countering THC-induced anxiety. Russo discussed interactions to treat a number of issues including: paininflammationdepressionaddiction, epilepsy, cancer, and infections.

 Russo believes pinene would be useful in the treatment of MRSA. Cannabigerol (CBG) is a potent MRSA inhibitor, and can be found with small amounts of THC. Because of this Russo suggests a whole-plant extract, high in CBG and pinene, which was found to have its own anti-MRSA qualities in 2010.

Terpenes could also aid inAlzheimer’streatment with cannabidiol (CBD). Linalool, which is prominent in lavender, helps counter stress and anxiety. Limonene is commonly used in aromatherapy to improve mood, and pinene is known to promote alertness and memory retention. Combining these terpenoids with a CBD-rich extract may help treat the wide-ranging effects of Alzheimer’s disease.

Another interaction that Russo highlighted could have benefits for addiction treatment. An essential oil made from black pepper reduced nicotine cravings in cigarette smokers. Interestingly enough, black pepper essential oils are high in myrcene, pinene, and caryophyllene, all of which can be found in cannabis.

Caryophyllene is interesting because it directly stimulates the CB2 receptors throughout the body. As we know, CB2 agonists prevent the release of dopamine, which is related to addiction. This, in combination with the use of CBD for opiate withdrawal, suggests that cannabis with caryophyllene could have a variety of rehabilitative benefits.

 

Russo, Trichome Technologies Suggest A Focus On Terpenes

In “Taming THC,” Russo focused on the interaction between terpenes and cannabinoids. With that being said, the knowledge is useless without some way to apply it. His solution: selective breeding designed around terpenes. Citing the 2002 study, “The Inheritance of Chemical Phenotype in Cannabis Sativa,” Russo suggested that growers focus on their desired terpenes when breeding.

In fact, Kenneth “K” Morrow, founder of Trichome Technologies, a leading international cannabis consulting company, recently endorsed a similar sentiment during Danny Danko’s cultivation panel at the recent High Times Cannabis Cup. In discussing the topic of terpenes, “K” urged people to tailor their grows towards the production of individual terpenes.

“K”, like multiple growers on online forums, believes that a number of variables (lighting, soil composition, nutrients, etc.) can influence terpene production. If growers are able to influence the production of specific terpenes, they could improve their product’s effectiveness.

Terpenes Can Improve Medical Marijuana, Infused Products

It’s been reported that certain terpenes dilate capillaries in the lungs. Logic tells us that this would be useful in the case of smoked or vaporized cannabis. Dilated capillaries would enable beneficial cannabinoids to enter the bloodstream easier. This certainly could be useful for growers who know how their crops will be ingested, and in the production of cannabis concentrates.

In fact, a number of concentrate makers enhance their finished product with pure terpenes. This is typically done for added flavor, as the more volatile terpenes can be lost during the extraction process. However, infusing concentrates with a specific terpene for added effect would be equally beneficial. For instance, pinene is a bronchodilator, which could benefit asthma patients.

In fact, similar processes already exist. According to Jeff Raber, founder of The Werc Shop, a lab-testing facility in Los Angeles, they are able to infuse concentrates with the terpenes lost. “Based on the terpene-profile of each strain,” he added, “we can recreate as much of the whole plant component as possible.”

One step further, K believes terpene-rich extracts could play a major role in the future of medical marijuana. He points out that some patients might want the terpene-related flavor and relief, without the high from THC.

Another potential application of terpenes could benefit users of medicated topicals. Nerolidol, a sedative terpene, is a known skin penetrant. Therefore, it could aid in cannabinoid absorption if infused in topicals.

The benefits of terpenes are widely recognized, but they just now are being explored by experts in the cannabis industry. As Ethan Russo pointed out, terpenes may influence a number of cannabis’ benefits. Their interaction with cannabinoids often impacts the effectiveness of medical marijuana strains and products, and could be used to facilitate a better overall experience.

Clean Green Certified!

We are now Clean Green Certified!!

Here at Gorge Greenery we never stop striving for the best, and are one of the few Clean Green Certified Dispensaries. From sustainable labels and packaging, reclaimed wood and recycled furnishing, to Clean Green Certified cannabis and gardens with extended pesticide screening, we are always striving to protect consumers as well as our environment.

Clean Green Certified is the number one certifier nation-wide for cannabis cultivated using sustainable, natural organically-based and biodynamic practices. Legally, marijuana cannot be called organic — no matter how environmentally friendly the cultivation practices used to grow it — because the term is federally regulated and the USDA does not recognize cannabis as a legitimate agricultural crop. The Clean Green Certified program was created in 2004 as a way to regulate legal cannabis-products that called themselves "organic." Consumers can rest assured when they buy a Clean Green Certified cannabis product that it has met all of the requirements of the rigorous program.

Modeled on national and international sustainability,  organic and biodynamic program standards, the Clean Green program requires on-site inspections. Clean Green Certified goes further that the USDA organic in some areas, requiring more strict regulations on pesticide testing for all operators and each cannabis operation must put into place a carbon footprint reduction plan, water conservation measures and fair labor practices.

Clean Green Certified has a certification specifically for cannabis processors and handlers. Whether it be a store-front or a cannabis concentrate company, certification audits the processor/handler's ability to keep Clean Green cannabis separate from cannabis grown conventionally. A consumer can have greater confidence when buying cannabis or a cannabis product from a Clean Green Certified outlet that it was grown fair-trade and sustainably, without the use of synthetic pesticides. 

 

Check out the Clean Green website here: www.cleangreencert.org

Why we need to rebrand the term "HIGH"

“My patients need that THC; they don’t really get a lot of benefit from CBD-only products,” says Bryan Krumm, a psychiatric nurse practitioner who currently works with about one thousand PTSD patients in New Mexico.

He has seen whole-plant cannabis heal all types of patients throughout 25 years in the psychiatry field. He has seen it relieve struggles with PTSD (including his own), as well as other psychiatric woes such as depression and addiction.

“There’s nothing wrong with that psychoactive effect,” he says. “People opposed to cannabis complain that this is a euphoriant and that it makes you high. But that’s what we do in psychiatry. We try to induce euphoria, to lift people’s moods. We don’t want people to be down and low and depressed.”

The difference between Krumm and a lot of other psychiatrists is this: he refuses to ever prescribe another pharmaceutical.

His only exception is the FDA-approved Marinol, a synthetic version of THC developed in the 1980s. A lot of cannabis physicians and practitioners frown upon Marinol because of negative studies and because whole-plant cannabis seems to be more therapeutic with its additional 100+ cannabinoids and multitude of terpene profiles.

But Krumm prescribes Marinol to certain patients when they travel out-of-state to places where cannabis remains prohibited. And some of his patients, contrary to what the studies tell us, actually prefer it to whole-plant medication.

By talking and listening to so many patients, Krumm has discovered that a lot of the studies out there are inaccurate.

In general, the term “high” is supposed to have good connotations, Krumm says.

“If you do the right thing morally and ethically, you’re said to be taking the high road. When we want to get smarter we pursue higher education. We set out to improve ourselves and lift ourselves, and we try to raise ourselves up out of poverty.”

But, like with so many other things applied to cannabis, the idea of getting high immediately gets a negative connotation, he says. “We need to change our understanding and reclaim that term as something positive – which is what it’s supposed to be.”......

Another expert I talked to, Sebastian Marincolo – a cannabis philosopher and writer who has been researching the herb for 10 years now – likes the difference between high and stoned. “When we say stoned we think of that couch-lock state of mind where you’re sedated, not thinking clearly – and for some people this is the desired effect,” he says.

“But the ‘high’ is something else,” Marincolo continues. “It is more euphoric and energetic – a different state of mind which comes with systematic changes in cognition and perception. And most people underestimate all of this and they don’t understand the full bouquet of changes.”

Where a lot of people view the psychoactive element as the adverse side effect of marijuana, Marincolo has methodically explored and laid out what he calls the bouquet of cognitive effects offered by the plant.

In Marincolo’s new book What Hashish Did To Walter Benjamin, he writes about many of these cognitive effects:

  • Hyper focusing
  • Episodic memory retrieval
  • Pattern recognition
  • Enhanced imagination
  • Increased empathy
  • Associative & lateral thinking
  • Deeper introspection

“It doesn’t really give you a total enhancement of cognition, but there are a bunch of possibilities,” Marincolo says. “No matter what you do, you always have some functions enhanced and some that get worse.”

Read the whole article at GreenFlower Media HERE.

Marijuana Doctors- Cannabinoids in our DNA

Did you know that you have cannabis receptors in your DNA? This means Cannabis must have been used as a nutrient for most of human evolution.

This means 4 key things: our bodies recognize cannabinoids, uses them, needs them, and our health is better this them.

A BIG THANK YOU!

A big thank you to all who came out yesterday! 420 was a great success. From our staff, to patients, customers, and neighbors, we all had a blast. A special thank you to Matt from Freshies Bagels and Juice for manning the much needed munchies food cart, and to Cesar for hosting our Cannabis 101 social as well as those who attended it, including Dr. Steve from MAMAs. We are looking forward to our next class event. Follow us on social media for great deals, news and classes in the meantime!

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Spring Hours are here!

We have extended our hours for Spring!

Come in Mon-Thurs 10a - 8p, Fri-Sat 10a- 9p, and Sundays 10a- 7pm.

Join us on Wednesday, 4-20! 

Our Canna Social and Cannabis 101 will run from 5-7, but we will be open 9-9 with specials all day!

For more details check out our FB Event here!

420 Canna-Celebration!

We will be hosting an intro to Cannabis 101 from 5:00p -7:00p with an open Q&A.
1.25 Cent Joints while supplies last starting at 4:20!

Deals, Specials, Giveaways and GG swag all day!
*Munchies will be available!!*
Extended hours 9:00 am-9:00 pm.
More details to come!

Happy Easter!

For our Easter celebration we are sharing some of the best Bible verses about cannabis!

Genesis 1:29, the most commonly cited pro-pot verse according to Driscoll, says, “Then God said, ‘I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food.’”

Luke 6:37, a kind of catchall verse, says, “Do not judge, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn, and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven.”

Are there other verses that might lend themselves in support of lighting up? Hint: Look for verses that mention plants or crops. Here are five:

Genesis 1:12 says, “The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.”

Genesis 9:3 says, “Everything that lives and moves about will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.”

1 Timothy 4:1-3, which is about people who will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits, says, “They forbid people to marry and order them to abstain from certain foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and who know the truth.”

Revelation 22:1-2, which imagines the water of life flowing from the throne of God, says, “On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations.”

Matthew 15:11 says, “What goes into someone’s mouth does not defile them, but what comes out of their mouth, that is what defiles them.”