THC

Strain Spotlight: Jack Herer

Jack's Trichromes

Jack's Trichromes

Strain Spotlight: Jack Herer

The world of cannabis is full of many different strains. Today we are going to spotlight a classic Sativa-dominant strain who’s name carries a great deal of notoriety: Jack Herer.

First off, lets talk a little about the strain itself. Here’s the Strain Highlights from Leafly:

Jack Herer is a sativa-dominant cannabis strain that has gained as much renown as its namesake, the marijuana activist and author of The Emperor Wears No Clothes. Combining a Haze hybrid with a Northern Lights #5 and Shiva Skunk cross, Sensi Seeds created Jack Herer hoping to capture both the cerebral elevation associated with sativas and the heavy resin production of indicas. Its rich genetic background gives rise to several different variations of Jack Herer, each phenotype bearing its own unique features and effects. However, consumers typically describe this 55% sativa hybrid as blissful, clear-headed, and creative.

Jack Herer was created in the Netherland in the mid-1990s where it was later distributed by Dutch pharmacies as a recognized medical-grade strain. Since then, the spicy, pine-scented sativa has taken home numerous awards for its quality and potency. Many breeders have attempted to cultivate this staple strain themselves in sunny or Mediterranean climates, and indoor growers should wait 50 to 70 days for Jack Herer to Flower.

Given the information provided by Leafly, Jack Herer makes for a great daytime and clear-headed experience. Medicinal patients may be fans of this strain as it would not cloud the mind as much as a potent indica strain. Recreational users may enjoy this strain for its creative factors, or perhaps the uplifting effect associated with sativas to energize oneself for a full day ahead.

But who was Jack Herer? Why did he become so revered in the cannabis community?

From Wikipedia:

Jack Herer was a renowned hemp activist and author of the book The Emperor Wears No Clothes. Starting in 1973, the story begins when Jack Herer takes the advice of his friend “Captain” Ed Adair and begins compiling tidbits of information about the Cannabis plant and its numerous uses, including as hemp and as a drug. After a dozen years collecting and compiling historical data, Herer first published his work as The Emerperor Wears No Clothes in 1985. The eleventh edition was published in November 2000, and the book continues to be cited in cannabis rescheduling and re-legalization efforts.

This dedication to seeking the truth about cannabis and hemp, plus his presence in the cannabis community and protests against prohibition, Herer became a legend, often referred to as the “Emperor of Hemp”. As an activist he fought for the plant to be decriminalized and argued that it could be used as a renewable source of fuel, medicine, food, fiber, and paper/pulp and that it can be grown in virtually any party of the world for medicinal as well as economical purposes. He further asserted that the U.S. government has been deliberately hiding the proof of this from their own citizens.

Jack Herer never stopped fighting cannabis prohibition up until his death on April 15, 2010. He still remains a legend among the cannabis community to this day, immortalized by his book and the strain in his name. Watch the full Jack Herer documentary below.

Cooking with Cannabis

Cooking with Cannabis is nothing new, but some of the best culinary creations involve a certain amount of creativity. From pizza to ice cream, there is no limit as to what kind of food you can infuse with Mary Jane.

VICE's food program, Munchies, explores this ever growing world of cannabis confections and culinary cuisine. The "Bong Appetite" series explores the many different recipes for cannabis, and just how good it can be. Check out this episode where Bong Appetite travels to Portland, learning all about the best way to make cannabis infused pizza.

Of course, cannabis pizza isn't for everybody. There's something to be said about the classic baked goods. Who doesn't love a pot brownie, anyway? Take a look at yellowjuanacake.com, a great home cooking blog with a wide variety of classic edibles like brownies and cookies as well as more intricate dishes such as lasagna.  http://www.yellowjuanacake.com/

There you have it! The only limit to making edibles is your imagination. That, and how much canna-oil or cannabutter you have on hand. Don't know how to make cannabutter? No worries, this article should sort it out. http://herb.co/recipes/quick-easy-cannabutter/

Happy cooking!

Test Results anyone? THC, THCA, Formula...

States that have legalized in cannabis require testing for potency and contaminants in cannabis, and lab-testing cannabis is quickly becoming an important part of the industry. The tests for pesticides, mold, contamination, etc. don’t require any new or special analytical techniques and are part of standard practice for other agricultural products as well. With the right lab equipment, chemists can measure cannabinoids to a certain degree of precision if they do it right, but the lack of a standardized way of looking at the data has everyone confused.

The subject of this issue is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which occurs naturally in the plant. THCA needs to be heated so it changes into THC, the active form that gets you high. All cannabinoids occur naturally in their acid forms, that’s just how their enzymes make them. The difference between THCA and THC is a carboxy group. Upon smoking, cooking or vaping heat gets rid of the carboxy so THCA gives of CO2, loosing about 12% of its weight in the process. Why does this matter for lab testing? Because THCA is heavier than THC, and lab results are given in percent mass.

The root of the confusion is the fact that different lab techniques give inherently different potency values. Depending on the lab, the analysis machine might use one of two separation methods: gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC).

GC happens at high temperatures, enough to completely decarboxylate all the cannabinoids in the mixture. The oven it happens in decarboxylates THCA before passing on to the detector, so it only picks up THC. This makes GC almost useless for testing edibles, because you need to be able to tell the difference between orally inactive THCA and active THC. Furthermore, decarboxylation happens incompletely at those high temperatures in the injector port, conserving no more than 70% of THCA, according to one study.

Liquid chromatography happens at room temperature and does not decarboxylate any cannabinoids, giving separate values for THCA and THC, which are always both present. These results need to be interpreted correctly, and hold hidden information about how the sample was handled and temperatures it has been exposed to.

Let’s look at an example. Given one lab result you could get three THC potency readings depending on how you read it, but only one method really stands to reason. Consider a made up lab result of Hypothetical OG that used LC, say it has 22.32% percent mass of THCA and 2.41% percent mass THC (active THC).

If you just look at the THCA value, you might think it has 22.32% THC. If you add the THC value to that, you might think this strain has 24.74% THC. Neither of these values is correct.

To get a real potency value you need to consider both THCA and THC, but with a correction factor for THCA before you add in THC. To calculate THCTOTAL:

 

THCtotal = (%THCA) x 0.877 + (%THC)

 

0.877 is the molecular mass (mm) of THC divided by that of THCA; this factor boils it down to a simple formula: take 87.7% of the value for THCA, then add on the value for THC. This formula also holds true for finding the active CBD content (CBD TOTAL) because CBD and THC have the exact same mm. Therefore the correct value of THC TOTAL for Hypothetical OG is 21.98%, the weighted average of THCA and THC.

To get a real measure of the potency of a strain of pot, you need to look at THC TOTAL. This is because the relative amounts of THCA and THC depend on the amount of heat the flower, dry bud or extract has been exposed to. Since this is always different, lab testing needs to see past this variable.

Since GC doesn’t work for edibles, many labs are switching to LC to test for edibles. If you know you’re looking at a lab test that used LC, you’ll need to use this formula to get a consistent value of THC TOTAL.

When looking at lab results, make sure to take this into consideration. Be suspicious of lab results that just give you one number for %THC. If the lab used GC, you won’t have this issue at all. The %THC given from a GC machine roughly reflects THC TOTAL.

Read the original article from High Times HERE.

Top 10 Cannabinoids

You’ve heard by now that marijuana is a powerful medicinal herb. But, just how powerful is it? The list of medical benefits for these top 10 cannabinoids seems endless. 

What is A Cannabinoid?

The term “cannabinoid” refers to  one of a number of chemical compounds found in the weed plant. If we want to get technical about things, the proper name for these plant-based molecules is “phytocannabinoid”. When you smoke or ingest marijuana, these are the chemicals that interact with cells in your body to produce medical benefits.

Primary Cannabinoids in Marijuana

1. THC

The Stoner’s Cookbook has written extensively on THC, so for the purposes of this article, we’ll highlight a few of the big points on this famous cannabinoid. THC is the abbreviation for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. As most cannabis lovers probably know, THC is the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana. It’s what creates the high feeling weed has become so famous for.

The list of medical benefits of THC is a long one, but here are a few of the big ones to get us started:

For a more complete picture of this cannabinoid, be sure to check out our “What Is THC?” article.

2. CBD

CBD, short for cannabidiol, is the second most famous cannabinoid. Like THC, the list of medical benefits of this cannabinoid just keeps getting longer. Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive. It’s also now legal in more states than its more controversial counterpart.

Once mainstream media learned that CBD had medical value, a whirlwind of cannabis research ensued. Just to give you a quick summary, here are a just a handful of conditions CBD can treat:

This is just a small glimpse into the world of CBD. For more information, check out “Everything You Need To Know About CBD” and “5 Must-Know Facts About CBD“.

The Lesser Known Cannabinoids

3. CBC

Also known as Cannabichromene, CBC is the third most common cannabinoid in the marijuana plant overall. In some strains, CBC may even take dominance over CBD. Like CBD, cannabichromene is non-psychoactive. Here’s what you can expect from CBC:

Anti-Inflammatory

CBC is effective at fighting inflammation on its own, but 2010 research has found that it’s even more effective when combined with THC. This finding helps support the idea that cannabinoids work synergistically with each other. While scientists have been successful at finding and isolating over 100 different compounds in the marijuana plant, the strongest medicine is created when different components work in harmony with one another.

Anti-Tumor

When coupled with THC and other cannabinoids, CBC has also shown some promise in fighting breast cancer. The anti-tumor effects of CBC alone are not quite as exciting as the potential of CBD, THC, and CBG, but together they make for one powerful tumor-fighting combination.

Anti-Depressant

In the science world, there’s a sure-fire way to test if a rodent is depressed. You suspend it by its tail and watch to see how much it struggles to get away. The more it struggles, the more elevated the mood of the mouse. This test is known as the Tail Suspension Test (TST). Researchers from the University of Mississippifound that mice treated with CBC struggled significantly more than mice treated with other cannabinoids.

The amount the mice struggled also depended on how much CBC they were given. Mice given 40mg of CBC struggled less than mice that were given 80mgs.

Anti-Fungal

In a review of cannabinoid literature, author Ethan Russo reported that CBC was mildly anti-fungal.

Encourages Brain Growth

A 2013 study found that CBC may actually help you grow new brain cells. Regardless of your age, cells in certain portions of your brain continue to grow through a process known as neurogenesis. The portions affected are responsible for memory and learning. You run the risk of developing diseases like Alzheimers when your brain stops developing new cells in these areas.

4. CBN

Short for Cannabinol, this cannabinoid emerges when you’re dried flower has gone a bit stale. THCa breaks down into this compound over time. If you leave some bud out sitting out in the open air for too long, you’ll eventually have a product with larger amounts of CBN. CBN has been found to have these medical properties:

Appetite Stimulant

Researchers out of the UK found that CBN stimulated appetite in rats. During the testing period, rats treated with CBN ate significantly more than rats treated with cannabinoids CBD and CBG.

Antibiotic

CBN was one of the three cannabinoids identified by Italian researchers as being effective against antibiotic resistant MRSA infections.

Potential Medication for ALS Patients

A study conducted in 2005 found that CBN delayed symptom onset in mice that were genetically designed to have a rodent version of Lou Gehrig’s Disease. Lou Gehrig’s disease is also known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). These findings show that CBN may be effective at easing symptoms for patients with degenerative, motor neural diseases.

Pain reliever

As early as 2002, Sweedish researchers found that cannabinol has strong pain-relieving effects. Interestingly enough, CBN and THC were the only cannabinoids that fought pain through the release of endorphins and by relaxing tense blood vessels.

Anti-Asthmatic

Featuring strong anti-inflammatory properties, research from 2003 found that CBN stopped allergy-related asthma in mice. The cannabinoid achieved this by boosting the rodents’ immune systems andeasing the inflammation associated with an asthma attack.

Sedative

Berkeley-based Steep Hill Labs has claimed that CBN may be the most sedative of all of the cannabinoids. The cannabis testing and research laboratory stated that a good dose of CBN is equivalent to 2.5 – 5mg of pharmaceutical sedative diazepam. Diazepam is also known as Valium.

Potential Medication for Glaucoma

Along with THC, CBN was effective at lowering the ocular pressure which produces blindness in glaucoma patients. This cannabinoid’s ability to decrease ocular hypertension may also point medical professionals in the right direction when it comes to understanding marijuana’s effect on blood pressure overall.

5. CBG

CBG is short for cannabigerol. This cannabinoid is found early on in the growth cycle, which makes it somewhat difficult to find in large quantities. CBG, however, is non-psychoactive. This means that it can be cultivated via hemp. The medical potential of CBG makes it a prime target for research these days. Here’s what the science says so far:

Antibiotic

Cannabigerol was another one of the cannabinoids tested on the MRSA virus in 2008. As far as antibiotic properties go, CBG was stronger than CBN and comparable to CBD. CBG is also known to be mildly anti-fungal. Research as early as 1982 found that isolated CBG is antimicrobial and kills various types of bacteria and fungi.

Possible Treatment for Psoriasis

This cannabinoid just-so-happens to be good for your skin. Not only does it help prevent the reddening of the skin, but it’s been shown to have therapeutic potential for skin conditions like Psoriasis.

Pain Reliever

CBG is reportedly a more potent pain reliever than THC.

Anti-Tumor

Back in 1998, Korean researchers found that CBG was effective at slowing the growth of cancerous cells in the mouth. More recent research published in the British Journal of Pharmacology found that CBG also had mild anti-tumor effects in prostate cancer cells. The study focused on non-THC cannabinoids. While CBG did have an effect on tumor growth, it was CBD that really shined through as a potential treatment for prostate cancer.

Antidepressant & Mood-Stabilizer

As early as 1975, researchers found that CBG prevented the uptake of amino acids that help regulate mood. The amino acid in question, GABA, was better regulated by CBG than THC or CBD.

Further studies have shown that CBG is a moderate anti-depressant, working to increase serotonin levels in your brain. The antidepressant effects of CBG were first found in 2006 in by Richard Musty and Richard Dayo who tests conducted on lab rats.

6. THCv

Short for tetrahydrocannabivarin, THCv is another cannabinoid that works in tandem with THC. Some studies cite that THCv has about 20% the psychoactive capacity as THC,  but recent research has shown that THCV actually mitigates some of the negative psychoactive impacts of THC. THCv’s medical properties include:

Anticonvulsant

Researchers out of Berkshire, UK put the anti-epileptic properties of THCV to the test in rat brains. First, they tested whether or not THCV stopped seizure-like activity in brain slices. THCv reduced the amount of convulsive “bursts” observed when the brain segments were treated with the compound before seizures were induced. They then tested whether or not the cannabinoid stopped convulsions in adult rats. They found that THCV significantly reduced seizure incidence.

Neuroprotective

If you’re familiar with smoking weed at all, then you know that you might be a little slowed down after smoking a high-THC strain. This is where THCv comes in handy. Smoking a strain high in THCV may help mitigate some of the short-term memory and speech impairment that goes hand-in-hand with being a little too high.

Promotes Weight Loss

There have been several studies that highlight the appetite suppressant effects of CBD, but more and more research is coming out linking THCV and weight loss. A paper published last year by C4 Laboratories in Arizona cited evidence that THCV decreased body fat and boosted energy metabolism in mice.

7. CBDv

CBDv is short for cannabidivarin. So far, not a whole lot of research has been done on CBDV. But, what little is out there looks extremely promising. CBDv is very similar to CBD, but it is a slightly degraded version of the cannabinoid. This changes the shape of the molecule in small but significant ways. These are a couple of the benefits CBDv can provide:

Anti-Epileptic

UK’s GW Pharmaceuticals announced a patent for CBDv last year. The patent will allow GW Pharma to create a CBDv-based anti-epileptic drug. They’re currently undergoing phase 2 trials for the drug.

This patent comes after a wave of research published back in 2012 and 2013. Two separate studies isolated CBDv as a strong anticonvulsant. The first study published in 2012 found that the cannabinoid stopped seizures in mice and rats. The second study also looked at rats and confirmed the first study’s findings. Studies from 2014 and on continue to corroborate this information.

Anti-Nausea

CBDv may also prove useful for patients with stomach or gastrointestinal issues. 2013 research out of the University of Ontario found that the compound is one hell of a nausea-fighter. Scientists found that nauseated behavior was significantly reduced in rats treated with both CBDv and THCv.

8. Delta(8)-THC

The THC that many of us have come to know and love is known as Delta(9)-THC. This version is slightly different. Delta(8) is less psychoactive than “regular” THC in adults. Some resources claim that Delta(8) may have neuroprotective and anti-anxiety properties, making it an interesting companion to the more notorious psychoactive. However, more research is needed to confirm just how this particular compound acts inside the body. Here are a couple of additional benefits you can expect from delta(8)-THC:

Appetite Stimulator

You might have thought that the familiar delta-9 THC gave you the munchies, but apparently it doesn’t compare to delta(8). An experiment on mice found that delta(8) increased the rodents’ appetite significantly more than delta(9).

Anti-Nausea

Back in 1995, 8 children with cancer were treated with delta(8)-THC during the course of chemotherapy. The results of the study were actually a little odd. While nausea and vomiting were reduced in all cases, delta(8)-THC also did not produce any psychoactive response in the children. Their ages were between 2 and 13-years-old.

9 & 10 Nutritional Cannabinoids THCa and CBDa

THCa and CBDa are the compounds found it marijuana before it is decarboxylated, or “decarbed”. These cannabinoids are found in raw cannabis, and can be eaten as a nutritional supplement or applied topically. You cannot smoke or inhale THCa or CBDa. Once you take heat to these two acids, you convert them from an acid to forms that are slightly more broken down.

In the case of THCa, you decarb down to psychoactive THC. THCa on is not psychoactive until you apply heat.

Dr. William Courtney has spearheaded the raw cannabis movement. In his opinion, cannabis is a dietary necessity. The superfoods of all superfoods, if you will.

As per his medical expertise, raw marijuana has several properties as a nutritional supplement, just to name a few:

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Improved intestinal function
  • Improved neural function
  • Cancer and pre-cancerous detection

In case you haven’t noticed, this plant is a medicinal gold mine. The 10 cannabinoids outlined here are only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to marijuana research. In all, there are over 400 unique chemical compounds in the marijuana plant. The individual compounds studied so far have not only wowed researchers with their medical potential, but the scientific community is further amazed by how these chemicals work together in harmony.

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Why we need to rebrand the term "HIGH"

“My patients need that THC; they don’t really get a lot of benefit from CBD-only products,” says Bryan Krumm, a psychiatric nurse practitioner who currently works with about one thousand PTSD patients in New Mexico.

He has seen whole-plant cannabis heal all types of patients throughout 25 years in the psychiatry field. He has seen it relieve struggles with PTSD (including his own), as well as other psychiatric woes such as depression and addiction.

“There’s nothing wrong with that psychoactive effect,” he says. “People opposed to cannabis complain that this is a euphoriant and that it makes you high. But that’s what we do in psychiatry. We try to induce euphoria, to lift people’s moods. We don’t want people to be down and low and depressed.”

The difference between Krumm and a lot of other psychiatrists is this: he refuses to ever prescribe another pharmaceutical.

His only exception is the FDA-approved Marinol, a synthetic version of THC developed in the 1980s. A lot of cannabis physicians and practitioners frown upon Marinol because of negative studies and because whole-plant cannabis seems to be more therapeutic with its additional 100+ cannabinoids and multitude of terpene profiles.

But Krumm prescribes Marinol to certain patients when they travel out-of-state to places where cannabis remains prohibited. And some of his patients, contrary to what the studies tell us, actually prefer it to whole-plant medication.

By talking and listening to so many patients, Krumm has discovered that a lot of the studies out there are inaccurate.

In general, the term “high” is supposed to have good connotations, Krumm says.

“If you do the right thing morally and ethically, you’re said to be taking the high road. When we want to get smarter we pursue higher education. We set out to improve ourselves and lift ourselves, and we try to raise ourselves up out of poverty.”

But, like with so many other things applied to cannabis, the idea of getting high immediately gets a negative connotation, he says. “We need to change our understanding and reclaim that term as something positive – which is what it’s supposed to be.”......

Another expert I talked to, Sebastian Marincolo – a cannabis philosopher and writer who has been researching the herb for 10 years now – likes the difference between high and stoned. “When we say stoned we think of that couch-lock state of mind where you’re sedated, not thinking clearly – and for some people this is the desired effect,” he says.

“But the ‘high’ is something else,” Marincolo continues. “It is more euphoric and energetic – a different state of mind which comes with systematic changes in cognition and perception. And most people underestimate all of this and they don’t understand the full bouquet of changes.”

Where a lot of people view the psychoactive element as the adverse side effect of marijuana, Marincolo has methodically explored and laid out what he calls the bouquet of cognitive effects offered by the plant.

In Marincolo’s new book What Hashish Did To Walter Benjamin, he writes about many of these cognitive effects:

  • Hyper focusing
  • Episodic memory retrieval
  • Pattern recognition
  • Enhanced imagination
  • Increased empathy
  • Associative & lateral thinking
  • Deeper introspection

“It doesn’t really give you a total enhancement of cognition, but there are a bunch of possibilities,” Marincolo says. “No matter what you do, you always have some functions enhanced and some that get worse.”

Read the whole article at GreenFlower Media HERE.

Weed, pot, bud, Mary Jane - The Etymology Of Marijuana Slang

Yes, weed is apparently the broadly hippest current term for marijuana, that venerable fount of slang. "Marijuana" is an anglicized, which means the conversion into an English form, term of the Spanish words "marihuana" or "marijguana," which identify the cannabis plant. The English knew this plant as "hemp." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the debate over the use of the drug in the US in the 1930s attributed to "marijuana" being the “exotic alternative to the familiar words hemp and cannabis.”

Because of the controversy surrounding marijuana during that era, many other slang terms were birthed around the same time. American Speech included ‘weed’ in 1929’s “Among the New Words,” defined as a “marijuana cigarette.” Just a few years later, the Chicago Defender reported using the word "reefer." And we can all remember 1936’s Reefer Madness to illustrate that history.

In Google Books searches confined to 2013 publications, smoke marijuana pops up 69 times, smoke pot 94 times, and smoke weed 149 times.Why the recent weed dominance? It seems clear to me that it's a generational thing. In the 1990s, a new generation of users wanted to distance themselves from their parents' dope or pot (the latter dates from the 1930s and apparently originated in African-American slang). Weed was already in the lexicon, and provided a nice implicit variation on the hippie-ish grass.

So which term is the most popular nowadays? According to the Google chart displaying the frequency of various cannabis slang terms used in American publications in the past 50 years, "weed" is the only term to actually be increasing in recent use. (=Also interesting is how rapid the rise in popularity of "pot" and "marijuana" were in the 1960s. To back that claim, in a Google Books search on the year 2013, results used the term "smoke marijuana" 69 times, "smoke pot" 94 times, and "smoke weed" 149 times. Not to mention that Urban Dictionary has over 225 separate definitions for just "weed." Slate attributes the popularity of "weed’ over other slang terms to how casual the word is, since it has already has another meaning as well – those unwanted plants in your yard. Using "weed" is simple and easy compared to "cannabis" or "ganja." Also contributing is a generational evolution, “In the 1990s, a new generation of users wanted to distance themselves from their parents’ dope or pot.

To read more about the etymology of cannabis slang, here are the links to the original HighTimes and Slate articles.

And here is the link to Leafly's Glossary of Cannabis Terms.

CBD and THC Effects and Ratios

Research on the benefits of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in isolation is well established. THC demonstrates analgesicanti-emetic, and anti-inflammatory properties, whereas CBD possesses anti-psychotic, anti-seizure, and anti-anxiety properties.

However, research on the simultaneous use of THC:CBD is less robust – its origins can be traced to Brazil in the mid-1970s. In this study, patients were given between 15-60mg of CBD in conjunction with 30mg of THC, and the effects were measured. Subjects reported more pleasurable effects and less anxiety with the combination of CBD and THC than they felt with THC alone.

Furthermore, a group of scientists examined the effects of administering CBD at a dose six times that of THC. They found that 73% of study participants reported a decreased feeling of being “high” when compared to THC alone.

Follow-up studies have demonstrated that the combination of the two cannabinoids reduced users’ experiences of tachycardia (increased heart rate), gait instability, and difficulty in eye tracking exercises. These results support the theory that CBD works to minimize some of the negative side effects of THC.

The most recent research into THC:CBD ratios comes out of the pharmaceutical industry, specifically around the GW Pharmaceuticals‘ Sativex, which has a 1:1 ratio of THC and CBD. In the clinical trials phase of drug development, researchers examined the effects of THC, CBD, and combination extracts on sleep, pain control, and muscle spasms. They found that 1:1 THC-CBD extracts provided the most therapeutic relief across all categories.

Click HERE to read the full article.